Coronavirus Malta  and EU- How to avoid spreading and minimize damages

What is the Coronavirus?

In the 1960s, coronaviruses were first identified. But we do not know where they originate. They derive their name from the shape of their crown. A coronavirus can infect both animals and humans at times though not often.
Many coronaviruses spread like other cold-causing viruses do: through coughing and sneezing by infected people, touching the hands or face of an infected person, or touching objects like doorknobs that have been touched by infected people.
Nearly everyone would be infected with coronavirus at least once in their lifetime, most likely as a young child. Coronaviruses are more common during fall and winter in the United States, but at any time, anyone may go down with a coronavirus infection.

A coronavirus is a kind of common virus that causes the nose, sinus or upper throat to become infected. Most coronaviruses are non-hazardous.

Nonetheless, some forms of these are extreme. Approximately 858 people have died from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), which first appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and then in other Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European nations. The first American was treated for MERS in Indiana in April 2014, and another case was registered in Florida. They had both just come back from Saudi Arabia. A MERS outbreak occurred in Korea in May 2015, which was the largest outbreak outside of the Arab Peninsula. In 2003, 774 people died as a result of an epidemic of acute severe respiratory syndrome (SARS). There were no further records of SARS cases as from 2015. Types of coronaviruses include MERS and SARS.

But the World Health Organization reported a new type in China in early January 2020: 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). There were 300 confirmed cases in China by late January and a death count that was still in the single digits. but was -. A traveller had brought the first case to the US despite the airport screenings.
A coronavirus often has the same symptoms with an upper respiratory infection, such as stuffy nose, cough and sore throat. Just a good rest and over-the-counter medication may be used to treat them. Coronavirus can also cause infections in children with middle ears.

Coronavirus symptoms:

The symptoms of most coronaviruses are identical to any other upper respiratory infection, including runny nose, cough, sore throat and, sometimes, a fever. In most cases, you won't know if you've got a coronavirus, or another cold-causing virus, like rhinovirus.
You could get laboratory tests, including samples of the nose and throat, and blood work, to find out if a coronavirus triggered the cold, but there is no explanation for it. The results of the test wouldn't affect how you handle your symptoms, which usually goes away within a few days.
But if an infection with coronavirus spreads to the lower respiratory tract (your windpipe and your lungs), it can cause pneumonia, especially in the elderly, people with heart disease or people with weakened immune systems.

What to Do About Coronavirus?

There's no coronavirus vaccine. To avoid infection with coronavirus, do the same things you do to stop the common cold:• Wash your hands regularly with soap and warm water or with a hand sanitizer based on alcohol.

  • Hold fingers and hands away from eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Avoid close contact with those infected.

You treat an infection with coronavirus the same way you treat a cold:

  • Take plenty of rest.
  • Take beverages with fluids.
  • For sore throat and fever, take an over-the-counter medicine.

Use ibuprofen or acetaminophen instead, but don't offer aspirin to children or teens younger than 19.
A moisturizer or steamy shower can also help relieve a sore and scratchy throat.
Even if a coronavirus in other countries triggers MERS or SARS, the kind of coronavirus infection prevalent in the US is not a serious threat to an otherwise healthy adult. If you get sick, treat your symptoms and if they get worse or don't go away, contact a doctor.

Human-to-human transmission has been verified, but there is a need for more knowledge to determine the full extent of this mode of transmission. The infection source is unknown, and may still be active. Export into the EU / EEA of cases is possible.

EU / EEA countries should ensure that appropriate and comprehensive steps for the prevention and control of infections (IPC) are applied around cases reported in the EU / EEA to prevent further continued spread in the population and healthcare settings. 
Assuming timely and robust IPC steps are applied around the imported cases found in the EU / EEA, the probability of further sustained population spread is considered low.
All flights have been cancelled from Wuhan. The Chinese New Year festivities at the end of January will increase the volume of travel to/from China and inside China, thereby increasing the likelihood of cases appearing in the EU.

The outbreak investigations are continuing, and as this situation is developing rapidly, ECDC will provide updated information as it becomes available.

Level 3 health alert released by CDC for Wuhan

On Thursday, the CDC raised its health warning to level 3 about travel to Wuhan, China. This means travellers are urged by the CDC to avoid non-essential travel to Wuhan, China— previously identified as the epicentre of the recent outbreak.

  • Chinese officials have closed transportation in and out of Wuhan, including buses, subways, trains and the international airport, according to the CDC.
  • Preliminary information indicates that older adults and persons with underlying health problems may be at increased risk from this virus for severe disease.
  • Transmission from person to person has been verified.

According to the World Health Organization, there were 581 trusted infection sources of the virus reported and 17 deaths.

"We know there is human-to-human transmission in China, but it appears to be, for the time being, limited to family groups and health workers who care for infected patients. There is no proof of human-to-human transmission outside of China at this moment, but that doesn't mean it won't happen, "WHO Director-General, Tedros Ghebreyesus, said in a statement.

Ghebreyesus acknowledged they don't know the source of this virus, and "We don't understand how quickly it spreads, and we don't fully understand its clinical features or severity." According to a study in China's state media, vehicles leaving the city will be subject to tighter regulations. Furthermore, vehicles are prohibited from taking passengers out of Wuhan and measures will be implemented, including driver's body temperature monitoring and vehicle disinfection. 
Meanwhile, the latest case of coronavirus infection in the United States may be in Texas.
"Thursday, the Brazos County Health District said the patient was travelling to Texas from Wuhan, China, where the coronavirus originated, but they did not yet know the patient’s path home and if that path took them through the heavily trafficked Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport or Bush Intercontinental in Houston," reports an NBC affiliate in Dallas, Texas.
This news comes days after a Washington state resident was the first American to have a confirmed case of the infectious virus initially identified in Wuhan, China.

"Healthcare professionals suspected a new coronavirus based on the patient's travel history and symptoms. A clinical specimen was collected and sent overnight to CDC, where the diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory tests yesterday," the CDC said in an earlier statement Trusted Source. 
Health officials in Washington said in a statement that the man had returned from visiting a region near Wuhan, China, where the outbreak was first identified.
Last Wednesday, he arrived at the Seattle International Airport. Soon after he fell ill, he reached out, on Sunday, to his healthcare provider.

Washington state health officials said in a statement, "The transmission of human to human has been confirmed. How quickly or sustainably this virus spread remains unknown." The virus spread to Japan recently, officials say; Japan has discovered a viral infection that originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan.

A Chinese national living in the Kanagawa Prefecture has tested positive for the new virus according to a January 16 article in the Japan Times. 
The man had returned from Wuhan on January 6 and was hospitalized on January 10. The Times reports he recovered earlier this week and was discharged from hospital.
The Japanese patient said he had not visited the seafood market in Wuhan, where live animals, including chickens, bats, and marmots are sold, the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) said in a statement. However, it is likely he had been in contact with people with pneumonia while in Wuhan. 

The centre stressed this raises the possibility of transmission from human to human.
Tests exclude MERS and SARS; according to the WHOTrusted Report, the initial information given by the Chinese authorities on the cases of pneumonia in Wuhan pointed to coronavirus as a potential pathogen that causes this cluster.
Chinese authorities later reported that SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, influenza, avian influenza, adenovirus, and other common infectious agents were omitted from laboratory tests.
The SARS virus infected more than 8,000 people, and nearly 800 died in the 2002 pandemic.
In 2002 and 2003, the virus spread to almost 40 countries.

A recent MERS outbreak, first detected in 2013 in Saudi Arabia, was associated with the same type of virus.

MERS was responsible for around 850 deaths worldwide according to the WHOTrusted Report.
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some of which cause less severe illnesses, such as the common cold. Though some move easily from person to person, others do not. 
Chinese authorities have confirmed that some people may experience severe illness with the virus in question.

According to sources, the Chinese authorities turn to quarantines to avoid the outbreak. China has begun to shut down flights and trains from Wuhan that effectively quarantine a city of millions. This comes just before the holiday of the Lunar New Year when tens of millions of people still travel home in China. 
According to an earlier translated report from the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission: "Experts advise that the town is currently in the winter and spring season of a high incidence of infectious diseases. Citizens should be careful to maintain indoor air circulation, avoid closed and airless public places and crowded places, and wear masks if necessary." Sud says the investigation for the outbreak in China is very early on. 
"It seems to be a coronavirus, but it takes more time to grasp it entirely," Sud said. "Every infection anywhere in the world is always a danger for every country because international travel has become so easy now," he adds. That is why early detection and quarantine are essential steps to avoid such infections from spreading.
The infection spreads quickly; there is no cure available, according to the South. Human coronaviruses transmit most commonly from an infected person to others via

  • Air, by coughing and sneezing
  • Close personal contact, such as rubbing or shaking hands
  • Touching an item or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands. Infection can happen at any time of the year.

Sud also points out that both SARS and MERS infections arose from animal-to-human contact, with SARS most likely due to bats contact and MERS due to camel interaction. 
"Since the infection-causing organism is a virus, we have no specific antiviral medicines to date," Sud said.
Bottom line, Chinese authorities have identified a respiratory disease outbreak. Today, due to the outbreak, the CDC issued a level 3 warning, notifying travellers that they should avoid non-essential trips to the area. 
Research has revealed that the infection causes coronavirus, a common type of virus that can also induce the common cold.
Doctors stress that there are no treatments available since a virus triggers the illness, and the infection can only run its course.


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